Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru | National Assembly for Wales

Y Pwyllgor Plant, Pobl Ifanc ac Addysg | Children, Young People and Education Committee

Statws y Cymhwyster Bagloriaeth Cymru | The status of the Welsh Baccalaureate Qualification

WB 11

Ymateb gan: NASUWT CYMRU
Response from: NASUWT CYMRU




1.          The NASUWT welcomes the opportunity to submit written evidence to the Children, Young People and Education Committee (CYPEC) Inquiry into the status of the Welsh Baccalaureate Qualification (the Inquiry).

2.         The NASUWT is the largest teachers’ union in Wales, representing exclusively teachers and school leaders, and has drawn on comments and observations made by members to inform this submission.


3.         The NASUWT has identified that the CYPEC wishes to receive views on the following questions:

·         The extent to which the Welsh Baccalaureate Qualification is understood and valued by learners, parents, education professionals in schools and colleges, higher education institutions and employers;

·         The extent to which the Welsh Baccalaureate is considered by learners, education professionals in schools and colleges, employers and higher education to be an equivalent, rigorous qualification;

·         The status of the Welsh Baccalaureate Qualification in schools and colleges, including the Welsh Government’s target for universal adoption and the potential impact of this approach;

·         The wider impact of studying the Welsh Baccalaureate on other curriculum subjects and education provision;

·         The benefits and disadvantages of the Welsh Baccalaureate Qualification to learners, schools and colleges, higher education institutions and employers.

Understood and valued

4.         The NASUWT has had long-held concerns regarding the Welsh Baccalaureate Qualification (WBQ). The union believes that the recent changes to the WBQ have improved the value in which it is regarded by learners, parents and education professionals in schools and colleges.

5.         Nevertheless, the Union maintains that many teachers, members of school senior leadership teams (SLT) and school governors still do not have a full understanding of the qualification.

6.         The NASUWT notes that the initial introduction of the changes to the WBQ were not without difficulties. The report of Qualifications Wales noted that:

‘For the reasons set out in this report, the introduction of the new Welsh Baccalaureate has been more challenging than it might otherwise have been. The late availability of detailed operational requirements and training have been the sources of frustration and confusion, and more guidance is needed to support the assessment of the new Skills Challenge Certificate qualifications. Concerns also remain about the proportion of assessment required in the new Skills Challenge Certificates and about the structure of the Welsh Baccalaureate as a whole.’[1]

7.         The NASUWT considers that there are still some major issues that need to be resolved before there is universal acceptance of the quality of the qualification.

Equivalent, rigorous qualification;

8.         The decision to grade the qualification at A-level has improved the standing of the WBQ in the eyes of students and, the Union believes, universities and employers. The qualification is now considered to be more robust and rigorous.

9.         The decision to reformat the qualification so that the core component has been replaced by the Skills Challenge Certificate has also been generally welcomed by the profession.

10.      The view of the Welsh Government’s Review of Qualifications for 14 to 19-year-olds in Wales ‘attainment of the Welsh Baccalaureate should become the basis for measuring the performance of providers’ should have caused a significant reassessment in schools.[2]

11.        The Union believes that this recommendation, together with the universal adoption of the Welsh Baccalaureate as the basis for programmes of learning, by schools and colleges, should have been a trigger to ensure that all schools and colleges supported the WBQ with the best resources. It should also have meant that the best qualified and most appropriate staff were deployed to teach the core elements.

12.       The NASUWT believes, however, that this is far from being the case in all schools and colleges. Many institutions continue to follow the path that caused much concern and criticism in the early days of the WBQ in that staff with surplus contact time on their timetables, were drafted in to deliver the qualification without regard to their qualifications, their suitability or their enthusiasm, or lack of it, for the course. This continues to work to the detriment of the WBQ.


Status of the WBQ

13.       The NASUWT also remains concerned about the workload and pressure on some students in undertaking the WBQ, especially those attempting to sit more than three GCE A-levels. In that regard some perceive that taking the WBQ is ‘a waste of time’.

14.       The impact on the, in many cases, obligatory nature of WBQ courses, has been unpopular with some students. For those near the border with England, this has, in some instance, led to pupils seeking school places across the border where they are not forced to take the WBQ. The students believe that this allows them to access a wider, and potentially broader, curriculum than would have otherwise been the case in Wales.

15.       The Union notes that this was also a finding from the Wavehill and UCL review of the Skills Challenge Certificate:

‘Both FE colleges and schools close to the border remarked that they were losing potential candidates who opted to study at centres where the SCC is not offered, or where it is advertised as optional.’ [3]

Wider impact

16.       The NASUWT notes that the WJEC describes the WBQ in the following terms:

“The Welsh Baccalaureate should reflect and support a curriculum that provides a broad and balanced general education at 14 to 16, and coherent programmes of learning at 16 to 19.’[4]

17.       The Union believes that the WBQ falls short of this in many schools across Wales, due in part to the methodology and ethos of its delivery. Whilst in some cases the inclusion of the WBQ in schools’ curriculum has in part safeguarded teacher’s jobs in a challenged climate of austerity and falling real-term school budgets there is no doubt that it has had a significant impact on the workload of those tasked with its delivery.

18.       It is clear that in many schools the WBQ has displaced option choices at Key Stage 4 resulting in an unacceptable narrowing of the curriculum. This is at odds with the direction of travel envisage by Professor Donaldson, and accepted by the Welsh Government, in Successful Futures:

‘The structure of the curriculum should … embody the entitlement of all children and young people, including those with severe, profound or multiple learning difficulties, to a high-quality, broad and appropriately balanced education throughout the period of statutory education.’[5]

19.       The NASUWT remains extremely concerned that many schools in Wales appear to be following curriculum ideas that stem from England, which are at odds with current thinking in Wales and is causing significant teacher redundancies in non-core subjects, particularly the arts and design technology. The loss of teacher expertise may be difficult to reverse.

Benefits and disadvantages

20.     The NASUWT understands that Qualification Wales has undertaken considerable work on improving the delivery of the WBQ. This included the involvement of practitioners in a working group that considered how to improve awareness and understanding, how to best support and provide training for delivery, and how to simplify the design.

21.       Unfortunately, the Union still believes that the failure by too many schools to recognise the fundamental importance of good teaching and learning for the success of qualification, as well as providing adequate timetabled time and resources, continues to hinder the perception of the qualification’s wider value.

22.      The NASUWT also notes that the review by Qualifications Wales stated that:

‘Welsh Baccalaureate Co-ordinators are very positive and extremely supportive of the revised Welsh Baccalaureate and are keen for it to succeed.’[6]

23.      It is clear that this is the view of Co-ordinators who are positively engaged with the WBQ and enthusiastic advocates for it. However, the Union is of the opinion that, based on the views expressed by members, this is far from the case for the generality of teachers, including some of those who have been timetabled to deliver it.


24.     The NASUWT offers the following comments and observations from NASUWT members, which provide some insight into the situation being experienced in schools by teachers, pupils and their parents.

25.     The NASUWT trusts this information will assist the CYPEC in undertaking their Inquiry.

Understood and valued

‘In most respects the qualification is understood and valued by learners, parents, education professionals in schools and colleges, but this depends very much on how it is led, structured and delivered.’

‘Most learners see the worth in the qualification, and if delivered correctly can give experience no other subject delivers.’

‘The Welsh Bacc is very poorly understood by most stakeholders. Out of all the stakeholders I believe the pupils have the best handle along with some informed parents. There are many colleagues in schools and colleges who have not made a distinction between the previous Welsh Bacc and this brand new qualification. It would have been better to rebrand it in my opinion. Governors have a hard time understanding the whole structure of the qualification in my experience. Most SLT have a good understanding of the qualification and most see the worth of the course but do not give it the time or resources it should. This has not been the case for me but has been for many colleagues. In my experience if employers have heard of the Welsh Bacc they associate it with the older qualification.’

‘The pupils are generally disinterested in all the written project work. They need to be nagged, cajoled and forced to complete projects. This often involves removing them from other lessons to finish Welsh Bacc work.’

‘Some pupils don't care if they get the qualification or not and so don't put effort into their work. Top set pupils usually work well.’

‘Pupils have quite a negative view of the Welsh Bac qualification because the choice to do it wasn't theirs and many pupils don't really understand the point of it, even after working on the qualification for a year.’

‘Pupils are not interested in it and see it as something to get through to tick that box if they are cooperative pupils, and something to push against if they are not.’

‘I do not teach Welsh Bac, but as a form teacher I can comment on pupil feedback – pupils do not understand how it adds to their educational / academic development; they do not value the skills taught or the subject areas proposed and see the whole course as a forced chore.’

‘I have been asked many times over the last few years about its relevance – pupils do not understand.’

‘Most Russell Group universities ignore it. Cambridge University state: “Applicants taking the WB are expected to have studied three A-levels as part of their qualification. Offers are conditional on achievement in the A-levels within their qualification, rather than the overall WB award” – i.e., we ignore it!’

‘I have no doubt also that established Welsh universities such as Cardiff are being pressurized politically to accept it and give it some credibility.’

‘As with most things in education, how well received it is is based on how seriously the school takes it. We are fortunate that we never offered the old qualification and do not have the negative baggage that was attached to that.’

‘Where a school uses teachers that have spare capacity on their timetables - usually for the wrong reasons- and then changes these teachers from year to year, the experience will be a negative one. Where a specified coordinator is put in charge and is paid a decent TLR and that person is given a remit to get the teachers they want to teach it and that team, largely, sticks together, the experience is a positive one.’

‘There is a lot of confusion over what the Welsh Bac is. Most think the Welsh Bac is what is taught in the classroom. This confusion extends to students, parents, teachers and governors. With the Skills Challenge Certificate being uncoupled from Maths and English as a stand-alone measure of school performance this, hopefully, will change.’

‘The vast majority of our pupils and parents have bought into the Skills Challenge Certificate because we have rolled it out correctly. Where that isn't the case it is treated like all those other subjects that students and teachers alike hate doing, as they are compulsory, such as RE and Welsh.’

‘Evidence suggests that the vast majority of universities accept the Welsh Bac at full and face value but it will not replace the requirement to have 3 A Levels in most colleges. Rather it usually reduces the grade requirement for the 2nd/3rd A Level. Some universities do favour it and have dispensed with interviews prior to offers being made.’

‘Levels of understanding vary hugely and this hasn't been helped by confusion between/with the Welsh Bacc, the Skills Challenge Certificate and the changes to the WG measure, etc. Teachers that actually deliver the Skills qualification have a good understanding but many others do not. Most parents are confused or ill-informed and HE institutions have widely differing views and understanding. Those admissions tutors that understand it, value it, but others don't. I would say that employers have a very poor understanding, even though it was partly designed to improve employability!’

Equivalent, rigorous qualification;

‘Where and when it works well, there is a dedicated and qualified leader and a manageable team of staff; there is appropriate funding and timetabling.’

‘Coordination by non-teacher "managers" unnecessarily complicates the delivery.’

‘There is too much variation in the enthusiasm and expertise among teachers delivering the course.’

‘An excellent Welsh Baccalaureate leader faces the prospect of delivering the qualification through 40 members of staff!’

‘I have to deliver two elements of WB this year and yet have received the total of 1 hours training. I still have no idea what I will be doing.’

‘Matters are not helped when schools and colleges use the Welsh Bacc to infill timetables resulting in staff relying on materials provided and a philosophy of delivering rather than teaching.’

‘Concerns have also been expressed about the academic value of the WBQ as some universities do not recognise its full value.’

‘Group projects are often delivered to half a year group at a time in the hall, with pupils sitting in large groups of around eight. What happens is that three or four pupils complete the work, another two contribute a little, and two others do nothing. Everyone is credited with having completed the work, regardless of their contribution, or lack of it.’

‘Project / assignment work seems to be being "spoon fed" to pupils by staff, as staff are afraid pupils will not achieve.’

‘Teachers of Welsh Bacc have had very little, if any, training. Personally I have had garbled instructions from an SMT member for literally 30 seconds as the Welsh Bacc class are entering the room.’

‘Teaching of Welsh Bacc is not specialist. Teachers are generally assigned Welsh Bacc lessons if they have any spare time on their timetable, regardless of their suitability/enthusiasm to teach the subject.’

‘The qualification could be great for pupils as it gives them more real life experience through the Community and Enterprise modules. Pupils love the practical side of the qualification (volunteering, creating a product, etc.) Global citizenship helps the pupils understand world issues and gives them opportunities to develop their opinions.’

‘Not having specialist knowledge also means I have felt lost at times when teaching the subject.’

‘It is not the equivalent of the other baccalaureate qualifications available and has little relevance to pupils and their future choices.’

‘It is also a subject much like PSE where you deliver it if you have space on your timetable, rather than if you are a specialist with a particular knowledge base of the relevant topics.’

‘I taught A-level across two subjects for 25 years and delivered Level 3 WB for two years. In my view qualification cannot be compared to other A-levels. Is an ‘A’ grade the same as an ‘A’ in physics?’

‘There is absolutely no rigour in this qualification. My experience is that staff do it all, put it on a section of the school website and the students just copy and paste it into their portfolios. Thus, staff undertake all the work.’

‘One element of the qualification, the Individual Investigation, which could be used to accurately assess ability, is routinely passively marked and grades inflated. I never saw an investigation that was better than the bare pass and most were written to a ‘GCSE project’ level, where information was routinely accessed and just pasted in verbatim with no analysis, interpretation, conclusion or evaluation.’

‘There is no doubt significant pressure on WB teachers to be as ‘positive’ in their marking as possible, thus inflating marks and results. I have seen work given back and colleagues asked to ‘review their marks’ before samples are sent off.’

‘In my view there was little rigour in the sampling and moderation process undertaken by the WJEC.’

‘The extent that the WBQ is considered to be an equivalent and rigorous qualification varies. Many HE institutions see the individual project at level 3 as very valuable and helpful when preparing students for undergraduate study. Past pupils have also said how useful this has been and one of the most relevant pieces of learning they have ever done for HE. Most HE institutions do see it as an equivalent qualification but only alongside other level 3 qualifications. Students also use their experiences from the Skills Challenge to help in applications for apprenticeships and employment to demonstrate key skills.’

Status of the WBQ

‘The Welsh Bacc is regarded as an afterthought which creates discord and negativity (as at my school).’

‘Staff are not trained and yet are expected to deliver.’

‘In my school the Welsh Bacc is a timetabled subject and is delivered by dedicated Welsh Bacc teachers. Time has been found by going to a three year KS4 model. Whilst this has its advantages and disadvantages it seems to be helpful in spreading the workload over an acceptable amount of time. Other institutions deliver the content through other specialist such as Geographers delivering the Global Citizenship challenge and the Community Challenge delivered by PE teachers. In my opinion this devalues the subject as some of these content deliverers can see this as an unwanted duty and further change to the job that they knew. I have heard of a school where 20 odd staff are delivering the qualification to a cohort.’

‘At post-16 "experts" suggest that the Welsh Bacc qualification can facilitate entry to higher education by providing an additional qualification and a broader skills-set but it is increasingly viewed by students and parents as an imposition that limits choice.’

‘While most students will see the benefits of the qualifications and the Skills Challenge Certificate it is highly likely that given a choice most would not choose to study the Welsh Baccalaureate.’

‘The Welsh Bacc is both reviled and viewed by those adults/children for whom suffering it is mandatory as a pointless waste of time.’

‘WB has a place for certain students but not all and at no point should be used for benchmarking schools or be seen as compulsory.’

‘In truth the majority of pupils have been receptive to the qualification and although they have found some of it to be repetitive they have learnt lots of topics they would never learn from another subject. The rigour sets up pupils well for college. I am starting to feel that maybe this subject should be an option as in its current form it doesn't provide much experience for non-academic pupils, even though it does try. This is mostly down to the massive 50% weighting on the Individual Project which is very much academically weighted.’

‘There has been a mixed response from different secondary schools in regard to universal adoption. In conversation with different SLT from different institutions there has been a few headteachers who consider the Welsh Bacc an inconvenience and were quite pleased when there was some uncertainty with whether the qualification would be universally adopted; this was in in mid-2018. Most other institutions see it as a chance to help their Capped 8/9 figures as it is 100% coursework; whilst this is true I believe it does not represent the enormous amount of effort it requires to get pupils to pass this qualification & that challenges are done under exam conditions. It is important to remember that 100% coursework does not equate to 100% pass rate!’

‘If it must be made compulsory the options at GCSE must be increased to provide a broad and balanced education.’

‘We have heard many a discussion of how students from Wales who live on the borders with England will accept English qualifications to avoid the Baccalaureate.’

‘I note also that some schools and colleges in Wales are becoming more competitive by exploiting the opt-out loop hole. Whether this decision not to enforce the Welsh Bacc at post-16 will result in increased student numbers remains to be seen, but the trend is there.’

‘Despite it not being compulsory schools do not give students the option; both my children have been forced to study it. When we asked for them not to be entered we were told that they would still have to attend the lessons as no other alternative would be provided. The schools employed a policy that would remove students from their academic studies until they completed any outstanding WB.’

‘The children are very apathetic generally about it. My Year 11 form class last year didn't want to do it and got quite frustrated with being called out of form and lessons to complete tasks.’

‘The learners don't really understand the purpose of it and why it's compulsory. As a teacher it took me a while to work out why it is in place. However I have used some of the business tools in my previous job outside of teaching so I know it is relevant in areas.’

‘As a form teacher for pupils who have studied Welsh Bacc in the past and also as a current Welsh Bacc teacher I worry about the qualification and the emphasis placed on it. Its introduction and inclusion as a compulsory subject is to the detriment of other option subjects and contributes to a narrowing of option choices for many pupils. This often affects the more able as those who choose a triple science option have very little choice left and this is largely down to the Welsh Bacc (and Welsh full course) becoming compulsory.’

‘The now near compulsory nature of the qualification at Level 3 is driving students in border areas to English schools, e.g. Chepstow to Wyedean.’

‘We allocate 2 periods a week at GCSE and the normal 5 at A Level but we are one of the few that have not made it compulsory at KS5; in my opinion that should be resisted.’

‘In most schools I would say it is still viewed as a 'bolt on' subject. Unfortunately, staff are often allocated last on the timetable and it is about space on the timetable rather than selecting the staff who are best qualified to deliver the course. This has meant that there is little continuity from one year to the next, there doesn't tend to be a 'team' responsible for delivery, there are a large number of teachers, delivering different parts to split groups.’

Wider impact

‘Its impact on education has been significant and negative.’

‘Welsh Bacc staff were RS staff. As such, the teaching of RS has at best been absorbed into Welsh Bacc and at worst set aside for the teaching of Welsh Bacc.’

‘The Welsh Baccalaureate qualification has had a dramatic impact on pupil choice and has reduced the status of non-core subjects as options have been restructured to allow for the Welsh Bacc.’

‘The Welsh Bacc is viewed at its worst by non-core teachers who don't teach it as something that has directly caused a 25% cut in our Key Stage 4 contact time.’

‘In some instances it has led to a narrowing of the 14-16 curriculum.’

‘Optional subjects have been decimated, due to WBQ and, as a result of the increased core subject delivery, children are having a significantly reduced choice at GCSE. The result has been increased redundancy in these areas.’

‘Narrowing of the curriculum caused by the WBQ has had a blunt impact.’

‘In one school, Humanities subjects have seen a reduction by 2 hours per fortnight. This is bound to have implications for staffing, the depth and breadth of the subject and of course, pupil choice. A recent Estyn report suggests a similar impact on Design Technology, Music and MFL.’

‘Our Textiles teacher was made redundant last month, to make way for Welsh Bacc.’

‘GCSE lessons usually 5 hours a fortnight, optional subjects have been reduced to 4 hours.’

‘Welsh Bacc is the reason I no longer teach Media Studies. It was one of the subjects dropped by the school when the number of option subjects for pupils was reduced from four to three in order to allow more teaching time for Welsh Bacc.’

‘The workload for both the students and teaching staff is significant.’

‘According to my head teacher Welsh Bacc staff are working with pupils from 7.30 am until 5 pm in order to complete the course. This is a huge workload and huge pressure for staff, not to mention pupils.’

‘Students are constantly removed from optional subjects for WBQ lessons and WBQ intervention days. This significantly impacts on subjects, their delivery and their outcomes.’

‘Welsh Bacc, towards the end of the school year, seems to take priority over every other subject, apart from Maths and English. Pupils are removed from lessons to complete Welsh Bacc work, to the detriment of other subjects.’

‘In Year 10, pupils don't take part in school community activities, like Sports Day and the Eisteddfod. Instead, they are working on Welsh Bacc. This is a great shame, as they miss out on so many experiences.’

‘Teachers are still made accountable for their results despite having to deal with numerous intervention days for core subjects and Welsh Bacc.’

‘I haven't taught Welsh Bacc for three years until this year. As a Head of Department I feel it is a horrendous amount of work that is going to take my time up from Science and Technology that I already don't have.’

‘My class size is 35. I'm in a computer suite that is too small. I will also have 35 6,000 words essays to mark around March / April time which is such a manic time of the year.’

‘Studying Welsh Bacc takes away an option for KS4 pupils and so they are more limited in the subjects they study. This, along with Welsh being compulsory has hit my specialist subject in terms of numbers (MFL).’

‘Teachers are not fully behind the subject as a second subject. Mainly due to the workload it creates as the whole course is coursework. Chasing pupils who have missed lessons to catch up eats into the specialist subject time.’

‘Without exception, KS4 pupils would rather have the opportunity of an extra subject choice when it comes to options. I am in agreement here as we are seeing the gradual erosion of subject choice in secondary schools in Wales with compulsory Welsh Bac, Welsh language GCSE, and, in some schools, compulsory RE GCSE taking the place of other traditional non-core subjects.’

‘As a History teacher I have seen option numbers for my subject dwindle over the last few years, with many pupils leaving school without a humanities GCSE or a modern foreign language. This obviously puts pupils at a disadvantage when applying to University, especially outside of Wales, and especially with Russell group Universities. This is worrying. The Welsh Assembly’s preoccupation with the Welsh Bac and Welsh Language is unnecessarily nationalistic and therefore divisive. Bring back choice and diversity.’

‘How much it is valued, again, is variable. When it was rumoured that the Welsh Bac was going to be removed from being a key performance indicator there was a move by some schools to remove it from being compulsory. As it does bite into the wider curriculum offering there will always be resentment from some circles.’

‘Unfortunately, a significant proportion of students still have a negative perception of the qualification and fail to see the value of the skills taught etc. In some areas I believe it has had an impact on skills such as research, report writing, widening understanding of politics, issues and context.’

Benefits and disadvantages

 ‘I have heard from former pupils that tertiary education institutions are telling their most able pupils that they don't need to take the Welsh Bacc Advanced and that they are better off focusing on other A Levels. This is a shame as the KS4 qualification sets up pupils well for College and likewise the KS5 qualification sets pupils up for the rigour of University.’

‘My daughter who has studied biomedicine feels strongly that she was disadvantaged against her counterparts in England who had wider choice academically.’

‘At my daughter's school, students wishing to pursue Medicine for example struggle to manage the traditional four A Levels when a lot of time is consumed by the Welsh Bacc.’

‘WB has had a negative impact on my children. It has detracted from their academic studies and played no part in any of my daughter’s university offers. Both children are clear, without WB they would have achieved better grades in their optional subjects. They are also very resentful that they were unable to study for an option of their choice particularly since they also had to learn Welsh as a compulsory subject.’

‘Work experience seems to have ended in favour of project work, or so called community service. I feel pupils are missing out hugely on tasters of working life and possible jobs / careers.’

‘Community service involves no real service to the community, at least not in my school. Instead, a sports / activity day is set up for Year 7, and also for Year 6, where Year 11 Welsh Bacc pupils are tasked with planning and running the day. In practice, the planning is done by teachers. As for the running of the days, this is often passed to twelve or so keen, reliable group captains. Input from other pupils is variable, but all are credited.’

‘It is a simple money-making machine for WJEC and WAG.’

‘The qualification has massive potential and is genuinely a chance to upskill our pupils; it is not perfect and WJEC do not help by not knowing what they are looking for, not providing enough help to centres and moving goalposts.’

‘The WBQ Community Challenge creates extra work load in preparing resources, marking coursework, entering data, arranging and organising beach cleaning activities, handing out and recording SV2. There has been little training available or support provided by SLT this year.’

‘On a positive note I do feel that some of the skills gained will be useful throughout the rest of their time in education.’

‘There is an undoubted cosy relationship between the WJEC, who want to see the qualification be a success for financial reasons and the WG who have political and ideological interests. Consequently, they are extremely sensitive to criticism and use spurious and questionable PR to puff out this qualification.’

‘I teach History, Politics, Geography and the Welsh Bac. I'll never be as passionate about it as I am about history but I believe it adds value to the curriculum offering. I have seen pupils grow through the two year period to be far more marketable in the real world having gone through the challenges.’

‘Benefits have included, encouraging students to work collaboratively, take an interest in and gain some understanding of global issues, allowing them to conduct research and write a report based on an area of interest to them. The frequent changes to the qualification, lack of training for staff and instability have been obstacles.’




[1] Qualifications Wales, Review implementation new Welsh Baccalaureate from September 2015, March 2016. Available at accessed on 11/09/2018


[2] Welsh Government, Review of Qualifications for 14 to 19-year-olds in Wales, November 2012

[3] Wavehill and UCL, A review of the design and assessment model of the Skills Challenge Certificate, and its place within the Welsh Baccalaureate, April 2018. Available at accessed on 11/09/2018



[5] Professor Graham Donaldson CB, Successful Futures, Independent Review of Curriculum and Assessment Arrangements in Wales, February 2015

[6] Op. Cit.